Course Work On The Relationship Between The Umayyad Caliphate And Oman

Published: 2021-06-18 06:11:19
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Category: War, Army, Church, Religion, Middle East, Muslim, Armed Forces, Islam

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- The Ibadis believed that Caliphs were tyrants.
- They disassociated themselves with all of the Caliph’s except `Umar b. `Abd al-`Aziz.
- When Mu`awiyah became Caliph a new era of Islam with Umayyad reign began.
- The independence of Oman was expected to change due to the new rule.
- Oman and the new Caliph had no relationship at all.
- The rulers of the two nations did not see each other as any kind of threat so they did not see sense in using valuable military resources in any kind of war.
- Mu`awiyah’s rule was not recognized by Omar.
- Different accounts view the independence of the Omar differently.
- Dixon indicates that Omar completed rejected Mu`awiyah while Hitti believes they were completely incorporated into the Umayyad.
- Links between Oman and Basra span back to the second Caliph.
- Basra had witnessed the rise of the Azd, whose population was increased by immigration.
- The dominion of the Hiddan group in Basra started to come to an end.
- After Yazid I died Amr al-`Atik took over the Azd.
- The Azd tribes formed a confederation.
- Rabi’ah allied themselves with the Azd against the Tamin.
- This created a longstanding feud among the two groups.
- When the second civil war ended the Azd groups moved to Khurasan where they affected Umayyad policies.
- Umayyad Caliphs powers did not emerge until `Abd al Malik b. Marwa.
- `Abd al Malik b. Marwa sent men to control Oman and lead it back to Umayyad rule.
- This was a time of controversy and many revolts took place in the heart of the caliphate.
- The civil war raging prompted the Omani to make a play for the independence they had held onto during Muhammad’s time.
- In response the Umayyad began to focus on the Oman where opposition was mounting.
- The Umayyad wished to secure the gulf trade routes before the Oman had a chance to seize complete control over them.
- Abd al-Malik b. Marwan chose al-Hajjaj b. Yusuf al-Thaqafi to do this and he was the governor of Iraq. Iraq was thought of as the most responsible post in the entire Empire.
- Al-klajjaj b. Yu -suf just sent out envoys in the beginning. These envoys were meant to collect tax from the people of Oman as a sign of their submission to the Umayyad caliphate.
- Sa`rd and Sulaym-an were the rulers of Oman and rejected the demands of the envoys vehemently.
- He was eventually successful in Oman and it was subjected to caliphate rule again.
- After that he dispatched an army to the sea commanded by Qasim b. Sha`wah _ al-Muzani.
- The army was defeated and al-Hajj-aj was enraged and intent on revenge.
- Muja`ah b. Sha`wah al-Muzani was the brother of a man that died in a previous battle and he was given command of the army.
- Later `Umar al-Ansari finally implemented a more lenient policy for the people of Oman.
- Ziy- ad became the governor of Oman.
- The presence of Khawirij affected the Oman greatly throughout its history.
- Oman was affected by Kharijism due to a Khariji revolt, among other things.
- Sufriyyah activities were first mentioned by al-Mubarrad
- The principles of the Khawa-rij were established after they broke off from the main sect of Islam.
- They believed that it was god alone who was capable of decisions in regards to the caliphate. They truly believed that 'Ali had given up his rights by permitting human arbitration.
- It is not clear when the Ib-adis became the most important doctrine after the Khaw-arij actions when it came to Najdah and the Sufriyyah to establish a polytheist state.
- The Khawa -rij spread out to many different parts of the Islamic caliphate while the campaign against the Umayyad authority was taking place.
References
Al-Rawas, Isam. Oman in Early Islamic History. Reading: Ithaca, 2000. Print.

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