Example Of Course Work On Univariate and Multivariate Financial Analysis

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5A. Niche Clientele is a portion of the market that an organization identifies as having some special features and determines that it is worth marketing to that portion of the market. The organizations tend to use niche clientele most often are those in the private sector-such organizations are owned and run by individuals. Considering a micro-finance: the questions usually asked in this case is: who will be their clientele with specific features and how will knowing their clientele help the organization? Such small finance corporation will often target people with low income or middle income level people. Understanding the specific income level of their clientele will enable them to set opening fee charges for accounts much lower than a bank will do, interest rates, where to meet their clientele and how to maintain lasting relationship with them.

Organization that mostly use customer data for mass consumer are private organization that sell a hand full or wide variety of consumer products at very affordable prices. Examples of such organizations may include large super markets or stores such as Target Corporation, Best Buy etc. They may not necessarily have all what a customer is looking for at a particular time but they at least meet the high demands of customers need at very affordable prices with durable and high-quality items. Customer data will enable such organizations to know what is often being consumed by their customers so their stores are often twice loaded with the item than before.

All-encompassing refer to the entire market. In this case, the consumers have no specific features and the organization does not focus on any market niche or mass consumer. A typical example of such an organization that uses customer data for all-encompassing is a public organization. Public organization are owned and run by the state or government for the community. In this case, the government usually use the taxes paid by the people to keep the organization moving. Let us consider a large government hospital that is well equip for the community. It primary purpose will be to provide public services and use resource efficiently to the benefit of the society. In this case there is no limitation to who should visit the hospital, meaning “all is welcome”. The government often use the high record of particular diseases encountered in the clinic for research purposes so that a vaccine may be made to counteract the spread of the disease.

5B. The main differences between multivariate analyses with univariate analyses is the number of variables considered when using any of the models to carry out analysis. Univariate analyses is used to analyses data that already exist using single variable, primarily at initial stages while Multivariate analyses is used for inferential research or statistics, where two or more variables are unknown (Peggy, 2011). Due to the limitation of input variables with the Univariate analyses, the model does not show all possible scenarios unlike the multivariate analyses that uses different indicators of risk and profitability, to show a company’s risk of failure relative to the intended standard (Peggy, 2011).

Multivariate analyses is used to describe causes, explain and compare relationships between business operations or factors while Univariate analyses is use for descriptive purposes only. Univariate analyses is the basic type of quantitative analysis and it is often use to describe the dispersion of data. In descriptive statistics, it is use for ranges (that is: maximum and minimum ranges, standard and variances or frequency distribution).

Multivariate and Univariate analysis are commonly used in Financial, Accounting and Statistical analysis. It is interesting to know that every analysis is often an assessment of an organization performance or correlations between operations, factors etc

5C. Marketing research companies focus most on consumer behavior. In focus on this facet, marketing research such as Claritas and Nielsen will enable us to:

- Understand the customer: understanding our customers is being able to identify their needs and how much they will be willing to pay for such products or services. When we know who our customers are and their needs, we are able to provide a product that will bring a good turnover to the company, keep happy customers and retain a large market share.
- Make value for our customers: We could only offer a value product to our customers when they feel satisfied with our product or services and feel that it is worth the expenses they pay in exchange of it.
- Communicate our value to our target market: We need to know who our customers are, that is: our audience, their age group, where they are and specific platforms to visit. The platforms include various social Medias to use in order to communicate our products to our customers ensuring the advertising message is understood.
- Make it easy for our target market to buy: It is not all about identifying what our customer need, knowing our target markets and communicating to them, we also need to make our products and services accessible to them. That is, bringing our products close to our final consumers so that they would not travel a long way to get to us. In most cases where customers cannot easily get to the product they want, they turn to easily seek substitute from our competitors.

5D. The experience I had working for a Urology Office enables me to suggest two main question to any Urologist or my former employer that will help them to understand their patients (Customers). The two questions include:

Who are your target customers (patient) and what their specific needs are: Statistical observation proved that the high rate of patients in our hospital was within certain age group and that was from 56years and above while only 3% of our patients were below that age. This statistic is a clear prove of what my employer should expect as a target customer and his target customers can be define as seniors or a group of old age people. He must also understand why these group of people are prompt to such diseases, perhaps because they are getting old or are already old and their bladders and organs are getting weak to resist certain urinary press activities etcThe research company may be ask to conduct a research in 5000 households, including retirement premises etc.. To know if anyone in the household or any of their love ones are suffering from any bladder or urinary or urinary-tract problems. That will give my employer a glue of the age brackets of expect customers (patients) and their specific diseases.

My employer may also be interested to know his performance by finding out how patient respond to treatment when they visit his organization. It will also help him to know how patient and other people feel about his healthcare facilities. In order to get this information accurate, he should ask the marketing company to include in their research, open-ended questions such as:

- Do you visit “Urology healthcare center” and why?
- How will you rate their service on a scale of 5?
- Where problems resolved and if yes, are you likely to visit “Urology healthcare center”?

5E. The classification tree (decision tree) is a systematic approach that help us build information about our customers based on the data input in our database system. It is always essential to know what type of data to use and why the chosen model is important to understanding our customers. The classification methods creates understanding between market segments or clusters and give us a typical information on customer profiles. The information will help an organization to determine how likely a customer will buy the new product or service in question. Classification tree technique information will include geographic classifications (addresses), age, sex, income level, marital status, etcbased on the product or services of interest.

The regression model is a combination of the classification tree (clustering or decision tree) and the market basket analysis. It implies, data is drawn from the history of customers buying habits from the organization taking into consideration any clustering made to determine which target segment will purchase or pay for the product or service of interest. Sometimes, the attributes of the product or service in questions are considered to determine how many customers will prefer to buy the product or services. Some data here might include; sizes, quantity or quality.

The market basket analysis is a data mining containing the history of customers buying habits from the organization including other items usually bought together with the product or service in question. This form of technique help an organization to often match the product of interest with other small optional products so as to drive more sales. An example will be selling travelling box of 3 sizes that match together. That is the large, medium and hand language with the same color features. In this case, it is optional to purchase the complete set of travelling box but customers that want to be more classic will purchase all three sizes.

5F. The Business Analysis technique of the governmental and other organizations would be different from that of non-profit organization in that, non-profit organization are out not to make profit but to meet their mission. Non-profit organization are focus in serving the community without any extra returns on turnover as profit while other organizations are out to make profit. The main different will be based on the factors that interact and affect the different businesses. A non-profit organization will focus on “MOST BA Techniques”. That is, its Mission, Objectives, establish strategies and tactics for its survival while other organization will go further in the PESTEL, SWOT and other important analysis techniques because of competitors and other factors that may hinder them from making profit and fear of losing their market share. As a result of being focus on activities that are for the public and private interest, non-profit organizations do not pay taxes, sales or property taxes (David & Galit, 2013).

5G. Correlation is defined as the existence of relationship between two or more variables and explains if they relation is significant or not. For instance; they is a relationship between preparing for the exams and scoring an A.

Causation is defined as the effects between two or more variables. That is the effect of one variable to the other. In such analysis, one variable depends on the other. That implies, there is one dependent variable and one independent variable. For instance; a diagnosis carried out on a group of patient before they receive any treatment for their urinary tract infection and a diagnosis carried out again on that the same group of patient after they have received treatment for their urinary tract infection. The video from the Khan Academy explains correlation and causation and it explains that the two are different. Causality mean A causes B while correlation says A and B turn to be observed at the same time. It is trying to explain causes of eating or skipping breakfast.

If there exist a positive correlation between educational level and income, it mean that earning college degree will enable someone have better job and end even higher income than a person that did not end a college degree. A college degree holder turn to have higher managerial position than a non-college degree holder and higher managerial position mean higher income.

The Business Outcomes we were chattered to deliver:

Working in any healthcare facility can be challenging but just as any other business, all those working in the health care facility are chartered to deliver high quality service to every patient that visit the location. Working for a Urology office in the past, I realized that Urologist were charged with greater responsibilities that I expected and I inclusive because I was part of the team. When a patient choose our office among several different offices to visit, then that patient had confidence in our hospital and we treated all our patients Kings. Most common diseases were Urinary infections etc The Urologist would have to ensure proper diagnose first of every patient with such illness before any step in the treatment process. The first visit and physical examination is usually followed by additional examinations (such as urine tests or blood, X-rays and cystoscopy of the bladder) in order to find out what was wrong with the patient. When the disease was discovered, it was the responsibility of the Urologist to administer drugs and make follow-up for a specified number of months for preventing the patient from any future disease. Patient follow-up, observation and prevention from any future contamination of the same disease gave us a competitive advantage in the healthcare facilities.

Our Business Pains:

Sitting in our healthcare office, we could not tell what the next patient that entered our office would be suffering from. Our office was often full of people within a certain age group and that was from 56years and above. Only 3% of our patients were below that age which was good. What we wanted the most was to bring up the right diagnoses for the diseases we experienced and administered the right medicines that would regain our patients’ health. It was funny to observe that some patients once they felt a little relief from their initial pains, they did not take their treatment any more serious. We were bent on seeing them through the specific time range to ensure that they complete their medications and proper treatments. Though, it was not an easy job in reminding adults on what they already knew they should do for their own health, we did that and I realized it kept our healthcare flag up.

Business Challenges:

Uncertainty was always a global economy challenge that affected our healthcare business. It include; the uncertainty on how new government regulations may affect our business, what our existed and new competitors would do to gain their market share. The question was: how did we solve that problem of uncertainty. We often tried hard to avoid long-term plans except for offices expansion purposes in other states of the country. Any other strategic plan concerned with the daily operations of our organization was established as a short-term win, so as to balance the need for a short-term focus and keep the team members’ alert. Short-term wins also helped us get smarter than our competitors and kept us awaken with the government regulations.

Business KPI’s and Measures to Improve:

KPI stands for Key Performance Indicator. The KPI helped us to gauge if we were performing well in our industry and it helped us drafted a strategic competitive activities against our competitors. We had four main measures which include: the organization development, organization and management, performance, and maintenance efficiency parameters. However, our emphasis were made on the performance, that was, a part of our productivity and it included:
- The time to healthcare service KPI that measured our ability to provide our patient with the healthcare they needed in a timely manner. In calculating such KPI, we took into consideration, the length of time a patient visited our service, the time for examinations and medicine administered.
- The lab turnaround measured the ability of our laboratory to produce results. In calculating the KPI, we created a breakdown for each type of test processed in the laboratory because some tests took longer than others to complete. So, we are constantly searched for new technologies in order to shorten test processed time.

Improvement Target on KPI:

Well, our main problem was “the processing time” for the above mentioned KPI. Our main aim was to reduce the time of operations to 10 minutes less in each activity (the patient arrival time, physical examinations and diagnoses) so that our patients ware place on treatment as soon as possible. Below is a drafted target on the time to serve table that was implemented:

Importance of target improvement:

Generally, improvement has always been a word to the wise and I say I was one them. I took the target set by the management as a challenge and as means to get smarter, faster and diligent because in the cause of being fast without being careful errors might occur. If errors were to occur, it would have been a lost to the organization, leaving the patient with a poor experience and impression about the healthcare facilities we provided. Though, some hospital do try to reduce their operation time by cutting down some steps in their operation process, we did not cut-off any step, all required steps were still followed but we were urge to increase speed of work and it meant a great lot for me. I practical became faster in serving our patient with efficiency.

Constraints in the business processes:

It was fun working as a team in the urology office and we were provide with all necessary information, materials and a comfortable working environment to better serve our patient.


The information I had access to in the department included: patient names, date of birth, height, weight, blood pressure, addresses, appointments, the various stages of patients visits, follow-up list. However, when necessary, I worked with a patient file as instructed.


Peggy Tee, Money Matters: The Difference between Univariate and Multivariate Financial Analysis. RR DONNELLEY. (2011). December 07, 2011.
David Roi Hardoon and Galit Schmueli. Getting Started with Business Analytics: Insightful Decision-Making. 2013. Baco Raton: FL, Chapman and Hall

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