This article mentioned the natural disasters like floods that may happen in poor as well as rich countries. As a matter of fact, these disaster are also linked with manmade activities. The change in land use, deforestation, landscape, and flood plains all contribute in the severity of floods. The article reported that global warming caused by man-made activities is one of the major factors contributing in this natural disaster. The human beings made changes in river basins that affect floods like in the case of Washington; concrete constructions developed to stop the flow of water prevented natural seepage that consequently enhance the frequency of floods.
Haddad, E.A. & Teixeira, A., Economic impacts of natural disasters in megacities: The case of floods in Sao Paulo, Brazil, Habitat International.(2004):1-8
This paper presented the economic consequences of floods in the city of Sao Paulo that frequently suffers from of floods due to extreme rainfall. It highlighted a model termed "Spatial Computable General Equilibrium” regarding point source of flooding and its influence. The floods drastically reduced the economic growth and affect the prosperity of the inhabitants. The total impact to damage ratio and economy-wide total impact to damage ratio were found 2.2 and 5.0 respectively.
“Natural Hazards: Flooding” Retrieved October 18, 2014 from http://www.n-d-a.org/flooding.php
This article delineates flooding that is the most frequent occurring natural hazard on the globe associated with environmental changes. Floods can be classified into river or coastal floods. The phenomenon is associated with low-lying coastal and river flood plains. The river floods can be attributed with excessive rain falls or change in landscape like landslides in the river or dams. On other hand, coastal floods happen due tropical cyclones and likes.
“Floods” Retrieved October 16, 2014 fromhttp://www.prep4agthreats.org/Natural-Disasters/floods
This article reported major causes of fatalities in US in a recent past. Almost 200 fatalities are occurring every year due this disaster. 50% of these deaths occur while driving in the process saving from flood water. The reason behind varying situation of floods depend on thunderstorms, snow melting, continued rains and so forth. Many remedial measures can be adopted to minimize the loss, but it cannot be prevented entirely from this natural disaster.
Felbermayr, G. & Gröschl, J., Naturally negative: The growth effects of natural disasters, Journal of Development Economics, (2014):111, 92–106
Felbermayr & Gröschl built database regarding flood disasters and their associated intensities by obtaining meteorological and geophysical information in this paper. There is no empirical literature prevailing to calculate the impact of natural disasters on growth development per capita. The relevant authorities and studies used to rely on data obtained from insurance companies. The paper provided significant data and information regarding the negative impacts of disasters on growth.
Baqir, M., Sobani, Z.A., Bhamani A., Bham, N.S., Abid, S. Farook, J. & Beg, M.A., Infectious diseases in the aftermath of monsoon flooding in Pakistan, Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine,(2012): 76-79.
Baqir et al. mentioned scenario of floods in Pakistan that used to suffer from floods especially in summer. Pakistan faced severe flood disaster in the year 2010 due to heavy rains that resulted in 1600 fatalities. Apart from this direct impact, this flood lead to spreading of various diseases due to unhygienic conditions provided in the shelters. The paper reported many diseases related to this natural disaster including diarrhea, leptospirosis skin & eye and so forth.
Li, G., Dong.G., Wen, L. & Chen, F., Over bank flooding and human occupation of the Shalongka site in the Upper Yellow River Valley, northeast Tibet Plateau in relation to climate change since the last deglaciation, Quaternary Research,(2014): 82,354–365
Increased flooding created by global warming endangers the safety and security of inhabitants residing at river basin and coastal. Li et al. emphasized that it is difficult to develop link among frequency of flooding, human settlement and environment impact. The article rebuilt the history regarding flooding and human occupational behavior at the Shalongka site by implementing different advanced techniques including optically stimulated luminescence, particles dimension, magnetic susceptibility, and color reflectance evaluation of overbank sediments. The paper presented the climate modification that used to affect the frequency of flooding regularity and afterwards influence in historic perspective of human occupations at Shalongka.
Diagne, K., Governance and natural disasters: addressing flooding in Saint Louis, Senegal, Environment & Urbanization, (2007):19(2), 552-562
Diagne explained their effort to develop remedies against flooding in the city of Saint Louis in this paper. The paper concentrated both on lowering risks as well as effective readiness in a city with very minimal financial investment capability. Saint Louis is an area that used to face a serious threat from flooding by virtue of sea level increase due to environmental changes. The campaign on this issue was initiated by non-government organization “ENDA” headquartered in Senegal. In addition, the paper concentrated on establishing responses that sketched a knowledge-based as well as on assisting the engagement of all stakeholders in identifying sources. It also focused prevailing options in order to reduce risks and vulnerability to lessen people.
Few, R., Flooding, vulnerability and coping strategies: local responses to a global threat, Progress in Development Studies, (2003):3(1),43–58
This paper presented scientific results and suggestions on environment change that are likely to be created in the worldwide configuration and intensity of flood occasions. These changes enhanced direct exposure of populations to intense flooding in some areas. Possible future dangers underline the significance of study and involvement of work focused on improving capacity to cope with flooding, particularly for poor nations. It also examined current theoretical and applied study on adaptive capability and susceptibility of families and communities in areas prone to flooding. The recommendations for further research are proposed in order to develop real understanding and potential mitigation strategies.
Shrum, W., What caused the flood? Controversy and closure in the Hurricane Katrina disaster, Social Studies of Science, (2014): 44(1), 3-33
Shrum (2014) mentioned in his paper that Americans have undergone three significant calamities during period of 2005- 2009. The cause of flooding in New Orleans can be attributed with three phases including organizational, responsive, as well as lawful. The devastating occasions of Katrina was attributed to environmental changes, natural and geotechnical. The paper emphasized that drastic tornados failed dams, and ultimately the loss of marshes with an insidious shipping channel ought to be deemed a techno-scientific development. The media and litigation processes transformed the structural disorders for the development of knowledge-based cases. There is a need to develop understanding regarding calamity cycled from attributes to humans, and to attributes again.